The church construction was financed by the Batumi Greek community. As Batumi was Ottoman-controlled in the 1860s, the Greek delegation had to receive permission for the construction from the Sultan of Turkey. They did, but with one condition - the bells of the temple should never ring.
Having agreed, the Greeks built the St. Nicholas Cathedral and performed the first Divine Liturgy in 1871. However, in 1878 Batumi was incorporated into the Russian Empire under the Treaty of San-Stefano, so already in 1895, the money for the renovation of the temple was collected and a bell tower was built.
During the time of Soviet Georgia, the church liturgy was stopped, but in 1946, thanks to the efforts of the Orthodox congregation, it was resumed.
The church of St. Nicholas was one of the most important architectural buildings in Batumi at that time, although it had a simple interior. Later, at the dawn of the 20th century, the church received icons of the Holy Mother of God, St. Nicholas and St. George as donations from the Greeks of the island of Chios.
In 1948, two women from Batumi - Tamar Nakashidze and Elizaveta Kotidi appealed to Patriarch Kalistrat Tsintsadze with a request to intercede with the government. The negotiations went well, and soon the Patriarch held a service in the cathedral.
In 1998-1999, the interior and exterior of the church were restored and services are currently held.