By 1866, there were approximately 4,000 Catholics living in Tbilisi. The only Catholic church could no longer accommodate the congregation, and so it was decided that a new church would be constructed, with space for 600 people.
The church was built upon the order of the head of the Roman Catholic congregation, the philanthropist Konstantine Zubalashvili. The architect of the cathedral was the German Albert Salzmann, who lived and worked in Tbilisi, and chose an early Baroque style for the church.
The construction process was completed in 1877 with the financial assistance of both Polish and Georgian Catholics. At the time, the congregation was composed of a mixture of German, Polish, and Georgian Catholics. The architecture of the new church won great admiration from its contemporaries, and its consecration was grandly celebrated.
The church also served as a social center for its congregation, with a parish school and library established near the church.
After the Sovietization of the country, the St. Peter and Paul Church was, like other churches, threatened with closure, but was allowed to stay open for the Catholic congregation in exchange for paying a fee.
A fire that occurred in 1993 and the copious amounts of water used to put it out damaged the church’s interior. In 2009, restoration work has been done on the church with the participation of Polish specialists.
St. Peter and Paul Catholic Church is one of two active Catholic churches in Tbilisi. The services are conducted there every week.